MCQs on Comprehension 2


MCQs on Comprehension 2

MCQs on Comprehension 2

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Read the following Passage and answer the questions that follow:

Passage 8

1. Archeology is the scientific study of the remains of past human culture. Archaeologists investigate the lives of early people by studying the objects that people have left behind. Such objects include buildings, artwork, tools, bones, and pottery. Archaeologists can make exciting discoveries, such as a gold-filled tomb or the ruins of a magnificent temple in the middle of a forest. However, the discovery of some stone tools or hard corn kernels may reveal even more about the early ones.

2. Archaeological research is the main tool for learning about the societies that existed before the invention of writing, about 5,000 years ago. It also provides an important complement to our knowledge of ancient societies that written records have left. In America, archeology is considered a branch of anthropology, the scientific study of humanity and human culture. However, European archaeologists consider his work closely related to the field of history. Archeology differs from history in that historians primarily study the lives of people recorded in written documents. Archaeologists search for information about how, where, and when cultures developed. Like other social scientists, they search for reasons why major changes have occurred in certain cultures. Some archaeologists try to understand why ancient people stopped hunting and started farming. Others develop theories about what caused people to build cities and establish trade routes. In addition, some archaeologists look for causes for the collapse of early civilizations such as the Maya in Central America and the Romans in Europe.

3. Archaeologists examine any evidence that may help them explain how people lived in past times. Such evidence ranges from the ruins of a large city to a few stone clumps that someone left behind a long time ago.

4. There are three basic types of archaeological evidence – artifacts, features and ecological facts. Artifacts are objects that were made by people and that can be moved without altering their appearance. Artifacts include objects such as arrowheads, utensils and beads. Artifacts from societies with written history may also include clay tablets and other written records. Features mainly include houses, tombs, irrigation canals and other large structures built by ancient people. Unlike artworks, features cannot be separated from their surroundings without changing their form. Ecological facts reveal how ancient people reacted to their surroundings. Examples of ecofacts include seeds and animal bones. Any place where archaeological evidence is found is called an archaeological site. To understand the behavior of the people who occupied a site, archaeologists must study the relationships between the artifacts, features, and ecology found there. For example, the discovery of a stone spear near the bones of an extinct species of buffalo at a site in New Mexico showed that early humans hunted buffalo in that area.

5. If objects are buried deep in the ground, their position on the earth also worries archaeologists. Scientists study the layers of soil and rock in which objects are found to understand the conditions when the objects were placed there. In some places, archaeologists find deposits of several layers called strata. The archaeological study of stratigraphy developed from the study of layers of rocks in geology, called stratigraphy. Archaeologists use special techniques and tools to collect archaeological evidence accurately. They also keep detailed records of their findings because much of the archaeological research destroys the remains being studied. The first task of an archaeologist is to locate the sites. Sites can be found above, underground or underwater. Some large sites are easily located because they are clearly visible or can be traced from descriptions of ancient stories or other historical records. Such sites include the pyramids of Egypt and the ancient city of Athens in Greece.

6. Archaeologists adopt systematic methods for the discovery of sites. The traditional way to find all sites in an area is through a one-foot survey. In this method, archaeologists walk themselves in measured distances and in pre-determined directions. Each person moves on to find archaeological evidence. Scientific methods are used to aid in the discovery of underground sites. Aerial photography, for example, can reveal variations in vegetation that indicate the presence of archaeological evidence. Archaeologists describe, photograph and count the objects they find. They group objects according to type and location. Three steps are followed to interpret the evidence found. They are classification, dating, and evaluation.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. What are the best sources of finding out archaeological facts?

(a) Artwork, buildings, bones, and pottery

(b) Tombs filled with gold

(c) Grains of hardened corn

(d) Ruins of a magnificent temple

Ans: (a)

2. What are the basic kinds of archaeological evidence?

(a) Artefacts, features and ecofacts

(b) Mayan and Roman civilizations

(c) Cultural developments in written documents

(d) Cities and trade routes

Ans: (a)

3. What is an archaeological site?

(a) Where tombs and buildings exist

(b) Where archaeological evidence is found

(c) Where extinct animal bones are located

(d) Where ancient civilizations perished

Ans: (b)

4.  How is archaeology taken in America?

(a) As lives of people as recorded in written documents

(b) As study of humanity and human culture

(c) As closely related to the field of history

(d) As written records of ancient people

Ans: (b)

5. Which of the following do archaeologists not study?

(a) Ancient hunting and farming 

(b) Ancient cities and trade routes

(c) Fall of some civilizations 

(d) Weather and climate

Ans: (d)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 9

1. A key feature of macaque monkeys is the presence of cheek pouches in which these primates temporarily store food. Offer them their favorite food and stuff whatever they can into these cheek pouches that can fluff up on the sides. The food will be digested later.

2. Most macaques obtain a good amount of their food on the ground for fruits, insects, leaves, twigs and more. Even spiders are welcome in the swell menu of these curious monkeys. Most macaques like the squat and thickset in build.

3. Various types of macaques are considered the hardest of all monkeys. There are half a dozen species of macaques in the Indian territory. While four of these (lion-tailed, pig-tailed, stump-tailed and Assamese) have limited distribution ranges, the first is widespread in the Nilgiri mountains of south India and the latter three in the northeast, rhesus and bonnet.

4. The rhesus monkey, named after the human blood factor, is an animal that was once exported in large numbers for medical research, particularly for testing newly developed drugs, including the development of the Salk vaccine against poliomyelitis. The common monkey of North India, the rhesus, is easily recognized by a prominent patch of reddish-orange fur in its pelvis and tail.

5. Climbing up to about 9,000 feet in the Himalayas, it is found south of the Godavari River and is probably gradually expanding its range. Found in small numbers in Mumbai’s Borivali National Park, often accompanied by a troop of bonnets and langurs.

6. The bonnet has a long tail and does not have a reddish-orange patch on its back (buttocks). But a centrally divided bonnet of the darkest, longest hairs emanating from force-sinking gives it its common name.

7. It is a common monkey of peninsular and southern India found south of the Godavari River. It is often seen in the National Park of Mumbai.

8. It is this animal that keeps you company at Elephanta Island, Khandala, Mather and many other tourist places in South India. It is, to me, little less than a temple monkey that Rhesus is in much of northern India, where a curious mix of religious and sentimental reasons keep it from being manipulated and persecuted.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer any eight out of ten questions by choosing the correct option.

1. Rhesus and Bonnet widespread in:

(a) Mountains of South India

(b) North-east India

(c) Southern India

(d) Alaska

Ans: (b)

2. Bonnet is like:

(a) reddish-orange fur

(b) cheek pouches

(c) prominent patch of reddish fur orange on its loins

(d) longer tail and reddish-orange patch

Ans: (a)

3. Rhesus monkey exported for:

(a) Mumbai’s Borivali National Park

(b) Testing newly developed drugs

(c) Elephanta Island

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

4. Before digestion, Macaque monkeys store their food in:

(a) Cheek pouches

(b) Their habitat

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (a)

5. Other four Macaques are distributed in:

(a) South India

(b) North-East India

(c) First in the south and the other three in north-east India

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

6. Bonnet monkey belongs to:

(a) North India

(b) South India

(c) North-East India

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

7. Where are the common monkeys found?

(a) South of the Godavari River

(b) Mumbai’s National Park

(c) Elephanta Island Khandala

(d) None of these

Ans: (a)

8. Which of the following has a longer tail and lacks the reddish?

(a) Rhesus monkey

(b) Bonnet monkey

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

9. Find the synonym of the word ‘Renowned’ used in paragraph 1.

(a) Temporary

(b) Store

(c) Favorite

(d) Prominent

Ans: (d)

10. Find the synonym of the word ‘Indurate’ used in paragraph 3.

(a) Hard

(b) Various

(c) Distributed

(d) Restricted

Ans: (a)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 10

1. Infection and trauma have been the leading causes of death throughout human history. Modern medicine has achieved significant victories against both, and the leading causes of poor health and death are now chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, cataracts and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the vast majority of apparently healthy people are pre-sick.

2. Several national surveys show that malnutrition is common in developed countries. It is not the calorie or micronutrient deficiencies associated with developing countries; but many micronutrient deficiencies, usually combined with caloric balance or excess. The incidence and severity of type B malnutrition would appear to be worse if the survey included newer micronutrient groups such as essential fatty acids and flavonoids.

3. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our health. Instead, we have delegated this responsibility to health professionals who know little about health maintenance or disease prevention.

4. Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the effect of a single micronutrient on disease incidence. The classical approach states that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and get a positive result, you cannot know which ingredient is providing the benefit, so you have to test each ingredient individually.

5. So do we need to analyze the nutritional status of each individual and then formulate a formula specifically for that? While we do not have the resources to analyze millions of individual cases. There is no need to do so. Most people are consuming small amounts of micronutrients, and most related micronutrients are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micronutrient support is perhaps the most cost-effective and safest way to improve the general health of the nation.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the questions by choosing the correct option.

1. Type B malnutrition will be worse if:

(a) micronutrients groups are included

(b) fatty acids and flavonoids are included

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) none of these

Ans: (b)

2. To know the ingredient is exerting the benefit:

(a) Give compound formula to test subjects

(b) Test each ingredient individually

(c) Study the impact of single micronutrients

(d) None of these

Ans: (a)

3. After analysing each individual’s states then:

(a) Classical approach starts

(b) Maintain the health and disease prevention

(c) Tailor a formula

(d) None of these

Ans: (d)

4. National surveys reveal:

(a) Malnutrition is common

(b) Long latency period

(c) Chronic degenerative disease

(d) None of these

Ans: (d)

5. Pharmaceutical model created:

(a) Incidence of disease

(b) Nutritional status

(c) Unhealthy dependency culture

(d) None of these

Ans: (a)

6. To improve the general health of the nation:

(a) A comprehensive program

(b) Universal program of micronutrient

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

7. What does the classical approach say?

(a) You must test each ingredient individually

(b) Who knows very little about health maintenance or disease prevention

(c) A diagnosis is made

(d) All of the above

Ans: (a)

8. Which of the following are the micronutrient groups?

(a) Essential fatty acids

b) Flavonoids

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

9. Find the synonym of the word ‘unify’ given in the paragraph 2.

(a) Reveal

(b) Develop

(c) Associate

(d) Combine

Ans: (d)

10. Find the synonym of the word ‘notably’ given in the paragraph 5.

(a) Analyse

(b) Specifically

(c) Majority

(d) Concerned

Ans: (b)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 11

1. Necessity is indeed the mother of invention. When there was a scarcity of water in Leh and its surrounding areas, life was not taking its name to stop. Why? Because Chewang Norphel, a retired civil engineer from the Government of Jammu and Kashmir, came up with the idea of artificial glaciers.

2. Ladakh is a cold desert at an altitude of 3,000–3,500 m above sea level, with an average annual rainfall of 50 mm less. Glaciers have always been the only source of water. Unlike the rest of the river/monsoon-based India, agriculture is completely dependent on the melting of glaciers. But with the increasing effects of climate change over the past few years, patterns of rainfall and snowfall are changing, resulting in severe shortages and drought conditions. Given the severe winter conditions, the window for cultivation is usually limited to one harvest season.

3. It is situated between the natural glacier above and the village below. The one closest to the village and the lowest elevation melts earlier, providing water during April/May, the crucial sowing season. Further layers of snow ensure continuous supply to the fields. Thus, farmers are able to manage two crops instead of one. It costs around Rs 1,50,000 and above to make it.

4. Affectionately called the “Glacier Man”, Mr. Norfel has designed more than 15 artificial glaciers in and around Leh since 1987. In recognition of his pioneering effort, he was awarded the Padma Shri by President Pranab Mukherjee in 2015.

5. Some basic steps have been taken in making artificial glaciers.

6. At higher elevations, river or stream water is diverted north into a shaded area of the hill, where the winter sun is blocked by a ridge of mountain ranges. In winter/early November, the diverted water is channeled through distribution channels to the sloping hillside. Stone embankments are built at regular intervals that impede the flow of water, causing shallow pools to freeze, and forming a cascade of ice along the slope. Ice formation continues for 3-4 months resulting in a large accumulation of ice called “artificial glaciers”.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the questions by choosing the correct option.

1. Who was Chewang Norphel?

(a) A farmer

(b) Officer in Agriculture department

(c) A retired civil engineer

(d) A doctor

Ans: (b)

2. Why have Glaciers been the only source of water for Ladakh?

(a) Ladakh is a cold desert at 3,000-3,500 m

(b) Because 15 artificial glaciers have been designed

(c) Due to severe shortage and drought situations

(d) Because farming is limited to one harvest season.

Ans: (a)

3. How are Glaciers significant for irrigation?

(a) Because it depends upon Agriculture

(b) Because it provides water in April/May

(c) Because it started in winter/November

(d) Due to artificial glacier

Ans: (b)

4. What kind of landform is Ladakh?

(a) Rainfall

(b) Hot Desert

(c) Cold Desert

(d) Agriculture

Ans: (c)

5. How do farmers manage to grow two crops instead of one?

(a) Because of the idea artificial glacier

(b) Because of the harvest method

(c) Because sloping hills face through distribution channels

(d) Because glaciers and their layers close to the village melt

Ans: (d)

6. Why has the pattern of snowfall and rainfall changed?

(a) Due to rainfall

(b) Due to climate change

(c) Due to glacier

(d) Due to agriculture

Ans: (b)

7. Which of the following reason he was conferred the Padma Shri by President Pranab Mukherjee, in 2015?

(a) In recognition of his pioneering effort

(b) Continuous supply to the field

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

8. Find the synonym of the word ‘Persist’ used in paragraph 3.

(a) Located

(b) Lowest

(c) Continue

(d) Manage

Ans: (c)

9. Find the antonym of the word ‘Non-deliberate’ used in the paragraph 4.

(a) Designed

(b) Around

(c) Conferred

(d) Recognition

Ans: (d)

10. Find the antonym of the word ‘Infrequent’ used in paragraph 6.

(a) Diverted

(b) Range

(c) Regular

(d) Inverted

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 12

1. Have you ever failed at something so badly that the thought of trying to do it again was the last thing on your mind?

2. If your answer is yes, then you must understand that you are not a robot. Unlike robots, we humans have feelings, emotions and dreams. We are all meant to grow in spite of our circumstances and limitations. It feels great to thrive and try to make our dreams come true when life follows our path. But what happens when it doesn’t? What happens when you fail despite all your hard work? Do you stay down and accept defeat or do you rise again? If you tend to persevere and keep going, you have what experts call ‘patience’.

3. Falling or failing is one of the most painful, embarrassing and terrifying human experiences. But it is one of the most educational, empowering and essential parts of living a successful and fulfilling life. Do you know that perseverance (patience) is one of the seven virtues that have been described as the key to individual success and well-being in society? The other six are curiosity, gratitude, optimism, self-control, social intelligence, and enthusiasm. Thomas Edison is an example of patience for trying more than 1,000 times to invent the light bulb. If you are reading this in your room with the lights on, you will realize the importance of his success. When asked why they kept going despite hundreds of failures, they only said that they were not failures, they were hundreds of attempts toward making the light bulb. This statement shows not only his patience but also his optimism to see the bright side.

4. Patience can be learned to help you become more successful. One of the techniques that can help is mindfulness. Mindfulness is a practice that helps a person stay in the moment by bringing awareness to their experience without judgment. This practice has been used to silence the noise of fears and doubts. Through this simple practice of mindfulness, individuals have the ability to stop the self-sabotaging spiral of despair, hopelessness and desperation.

5. What did you do to overcome negative and self-sabotaging feelings of failure? Reflect on what you did, and try to use those same powerful resources to help you today.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions choosing the right option given below each question: 

1. The reason why you are not a robot is that:

(a) You fail miserably at tasks

(b) Failure and success can affect your emotions

(c) You work hard

(d) You have limitations

Ans: (b)

2.  Choose the option that best captures the central idea of the passage from the given quotes.

“What is the point of being alive if you don’t at least try to do something remarkable?” (1) —John Green

“Mistakes are the portals of discovery.” (2) —James Joyce

“Failure should be our teacher, not our undertaker. Failure is delay, not defeat. It is a temporary detour, not a dead end.” (3)—Denis Waitley

“A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new.” (4) —Albert Einstein

(a) Option (1)

(b) Option (2)

(c) Option (3)

(d) Option (4)

Ans: (c)

3. What is the tone of the following context: “Falling down or failing is one of the most… educational, empowering, and essential parts of living a successful and fulfilling life.”?

(a) Humorous

(b) Optimistic

(c) Horrifying

(d) Solemn

Ans: (b)

4.  Which of the following is relevant for the title of the passage.

(a) Dreams Always Come True

(b) Failure and Grit Go Hand in Hand

(c) Humans vs Robots

(d) Falling Down and Getting Up

Ans: (d)

5.  ……………… was created after many attempts.

(a) electricity

(b) light bulb

(c) current

(d) tube light

Ans: (b)

6.  Which of the following sentences makes the correct use of “grit”, as used in the passage?

(a) Get rid of that grit in your shoes.

(b) She had a bit of grit in her eye.

(c) The road had been covered with grit.

(d) Her grit never made her give up.

Ans: (d)

7. To develop perseverance one must:

(a) become more aware

(b) work hard

(c) be in the moment and be aware without judgement

(d) seek guidance

Ans: (c)

8. How does mindfulness help?

(a) It creates awareness

(b) It quietens the noise of fears and doubts

(c) It helps one become successful

(d) It helps develop focus

Ans: (b)

9. What do you understand from this line, “Falling down or failing is one of the most agonizing, embarrassing, and scary human experiences.”?

(a) Falling down makes us angry.

(b) Failure can deeply affect our emotions

(c) Stay positive and be optimistic

(d) Self-control is empowering

Ans: (b)

10. Choose the option that correctly states the meaning of ‘social intelligence’ as implied in the passage:

(a) Knowing others

(b) Knowing oneself and others

(c) Knowing oneself

(d) Knowing one’s surroundings

Ans: (b)

11.  The importance of perseverance and optimism for a successful and fulfilling life is explained using the example of?

(a) Thomas Edison

(b) Flourishing

(c) Grit

(d) Limitations

Ans: (a)

12. What is the message conveyed in the last paragraph of the passage?

(a) Always aim for the best

(b) Live life king size

(c) Through mindfulness we can overcome the negative impact of failure

(d) Social intelligence is crucial for a successful life

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 13

1. South India is known for its music, art and rich literature. Madras or Chennai can be called the cultural capital and soul of Mother India. The city is built in pleasant contrast to the eerie tall structures of Mumbai and Kolkata. It has vast open spaces and ample greenery. The majestic giant Mount Road looks like a river, wide and deep. A walk on the Marina beach in the evening refreshes your face with the glow of the sea. The air cools the body, refreshes the mind, sharpens the tongue and sharpens the intellect.

2. One can never feel dull in Chennai. The intellectual and cultural life of the city is amazing. Every street corner of Chennai has a literary forum, a debating society and a music, dance and theatrical club. Wise logic, gleaming wit and sharp irony liven up both political and literary meetings, is a young men’s association that attracts brilliant speakers and equally talented listeners to its meetings. It’s a nice experience to watch the speakers use their eloquent arms. The speakers of Chennai are overall sweet and urban, although the aggressive, fire-eating variety is often seen in political campaigning. Urban speakers weave their arguments slowly as a relaxed Carnatic melody is uttered.

3. Music festivals and dance performances attract packed houses. There will hardly be any cultural family in Chennai that does not learn and patronize music and dance in its pristine purity. The ‘Kala Kshetra’ of Rukmani Devi Arundale is a famous international centre. It has brought out hundreds of eminent masters and dancers who have brought laurels and glory to our country. Carnatic music has its own charm. It has the gentle beauty of the moon and the gentle movement of the moon. Thousands of people flock to the ‘grounds’ of the temple to get intoxicated with the melodious tunes of their favorite singers. They sit outside all night in the scorching heat, swinging to the beat of ‘Nadaswaram’ and rolling with the measured beats of ‘Mridangam’. Ms. Subbulakshmi is considered as the Nightingale of the South.

4. The deities may descend from heaven to see the South Indian girl dancing. There are many varieties of South Indian dance – Bharatanatyam, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, etc. The era can neither wither nor can the customs prevent its beautiful diversity. Bharatanatyam is the most beautiful and enchanting dance form, while Kathakali is the most masculine. South Indian dances associate sexuality with purity. Here, every muscle and fiber in the body vibrates to life, and as the movement progresses, a celestial flame-like zeal appears in the body as if it were attacking the heavens.

5. South Indian dress, especially that of men, is purely simple. There you cannot separate a judge from the ‘orderly’ by their dress. South Indian women also look alluring and beautiful in their colorful Kanjeevaram and Mysore silk sarees.

6. South Indian dishes, especially ‘Dosa’, ‘Idli’ and ‘Vada’ are so delicious items of food. One can enjoy them almost everywhere in India as well as in some foreign countries. Madras ‘Idli’, which was Gandhiji’s favourite, is served with ‘sambar’ and ‘coconut chutney’.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. For what is South India mainly known?

(a) For tasty food

(b) For its traditional, music, art, literature

(c) For scenic beauty

(d) For its delicate and precise ways

Ans: (b)

2. Why is it a treat to watch the speakers?

(a) Because they use oratorical weapons

(b) Because they are witnessed in campaigning

(c) Because they weave their arguments fastly

(d) Because they argue and complain a lot.

Ans: (a)

3. What is M.S. Subbu Lakshmi considered to be?

(a) Graceful and enchanting

(b) Masculine and virile

(c) Nightingale of the South

(d) Moon’s soft beauty

Ans: (c)

4. Which is the South Indian dance form?

(a) Bharatnatyam

(b) Kuchipudi

(c) Kathakali

(d) All of these

Ans: (d)

5. Why are South Indian dances special?

(a) Because Gods come from heaven to see them

(b) Because there aren’t many varieties of dance

(c) Because they are pure as well as sensuous

(d) Because they make an assault on heaven

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 14

1. Maharana Pratap ruled Mewar for only 25 years. However, he achieved so much grandeur during his reign that his glory transcended the boundaries of countries and time transformed him into an immortal personality. He, along with his kingdom, became synonymous with valor, sacrifice and patriotism. Mewar was a major Rajput kingdom even before Maharana Pratap ascended the throne. The kings of Mewar, with the cooperation of their nobles and subjects, had established such traditions in the state, which increased their magnificence, despite having a small area under their command and a small population. There have been thorny occasions when the flag of the state was seen sliding down. Thanks to the valor and talent of the people of Mewar, their flag once again rose high in the sky.

2. The fate of Mewar was good in the sense that barring a few, most of the rulers were capable and patriotic. This glorious tradition of the state continued from the reign of Bappa Rawal for nearly 1,500 years since its inception. Actually, 60 years before Maharana Pratap, Rana Sanga had brought the state to the pinnacle of fame. His fame went beyond Rajasthan and reached Delhi. Two generations before him, Rana Kumbha had given a new stature to the state through victory and development works. Literature and art also developed exceptionally during his reign. Rana himself was inclined towards writing and his works are read with reverence even today. The environment of his kingdom was conducive to the creation of high-quality works of art and literature. These achievements were the result of a long tradition spanning many generations.

3. The life of the people of Mewar must have been peaceful and prosperous for a long period of time; Otherwise, such extraordinary achievement in these fields would not have been possible. This is reflected in his art and literature as well as his loving nature. They make up for their lack of admirable physique with their firm yet pleasant nature. The ambiance of Mewar remains lovely due to the cheerful and generous character of the people here.

4. Amazing workmanship can be seen not only in the forts and palaces of Mewar but also in public utility buildings. The ruins of many structures that still stand tall in their grandeur are evidence that Mewar was not only a land of heroes but also a place of art and culture. Amidst the aggression and bloodshed, literature and art flourished and the creative activities of literature and artists did not suffer. Imagine how glorious the period must have been when the Victory Stambh was built, which is still a specimen of our great ancient architecture. In the same fort, Kirti Stambh stands tall, which shows how liberal was the administration of the time, which allowed people from other communities and states to come and do construction work. It is useless to get into the debate about whether Vijay Stambha was built first or Kirti Stambha. The fact that the two capitals stand side by side reveals the closeness between the king and the subjects of Mewar.

5. The cycle of time does not remain the same. Whereas, the reign of Rana Sanga was instrumental in taking the state to the pinnacle of glory. It was also proved to be their nemesis. History took a turn. The fate of Mewar, the land of heroes, began to deteriorate. Rana with his acumen tried to save the day which was going against the current and glorious traditions for some time.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. How did Maharana Pratap turn into an immortal personality?

(a) He ruled Mewar for 25 years

(b) He added a lot of grandeur to Mewar

(c) Of his valour, sacrifice and patriotism

(d) Both (b) and (c)

Ans: (d)

2. What were the difficulties in the way of Mewar?

(a) Lack of cooperation of the nobility

(b) Ancient traditions of the kingdom

(c) Its small area and small population

(d) The poverty of the subjects

Ans: (c)

3. What was the thorny occasion?

(a) When the flag of Mewar seemed to be lowered

(b) When the flag of Mewar was hoisted high

(c) When the people of Mewar showed gallantry

(d) Both (a) and (c)

Ans: (d)

4. Why was Mewar lucky?

(a) Because all of its rulers were competent

(b) Because most of its people were competent

(c) Because most of its rulers were incompetent

(d) Because only a few of its people were competent

Ans: (b)

5. Which is the sample of our great ancient architecture even today?

(a) Palace of Mewar

(b) Port of Mewar

(c) Vijaya Stambha

(d) Kirti Stambha

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 2

Passage 15

1. Smoking is the leading cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and a causative factor of death due to malignancies of the larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach and cervix and coronary heart diseases.

2. Nicotine is the major substance present in smoke that causes physical dependence. Additives harm the body. For example, ammonia can result in a 100-fold increase in nicotine’s ability to inhale smoke.

3. Levulinic acid, which is added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of nicotine, may increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, increasing the ‘kick’ of nicotine.

4. The smoke from the burning end of a cigarette contains more than 4,000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic or cancer-causing.

5. Smokers’ lungs store annual deposits of l-l’a pound gooey black material. The invisible gas phase of cigarette smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen and toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen-cyanide and nitrogen oxide. These gases are toxic and in many cases interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen.

6. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumor promoters or tumor initiators by directly acting on the genetic makeup of body cells leading to the development of cancer.

7. When smoking, within the first 8-10 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly ‘transferred’ into the bloodstream and circulates throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the bloodstream through mucous membranes such as the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if sniff is used) and even through the skin. Our brain is made up of billions of nerve cells and they communicate with each other through chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

8. Nicotine is one of the most potent nerve poisons and binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic receptors located in the brainstem, autonomic ganglia, medulla, and neuromuscular junctions. It is located throughout the brain and plays an important role in cognitive processes and memory.

9. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, due to its similar structure to acetylcholine, when it enters the brain, binds to acetylcholine sites and produces toxic effects.

10. At higher concentrations, nicotine is more lethal. Actually, even a drop of pure nicotine on the tongue can kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries.

11. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration will result in increased dopamine release from the brain, creating perceptions of pleasure and pleasure, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, a sense of power in the early stages of smoking will increase.

12. However, despite these superficial effects, research shows that the association between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 29 cigarettes each day and that it is related to socio-economic status, gender and related medical conditions. Smoking may accelerate age-related memory loss and the details are not yet clear. Some studies suggest that repeated exposure to high nicotinic smoke related to ‘brain-wiring’ is nothing but neuro-biochemistry related to the complex interactions between genetic experience and the biochemistry of brain cells.

13. ‘NO’ is a unique molecule that plays an important role in many beneficial and some harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s disease, etc. It has also been found that people who smoke more cigarettes during the day have weaker memory in middle age than non-smokers.

14. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to brain function may be nerve cell death or loss of dendrites due to a reduced density of interconnected neuronal networks, the small fibers that connect one nerve cell to another. Abstaining from smoking is essential not only to avoid these systemic effects but also to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. What does the presence of nicotine in the smoke cause?

(a) Physical dependence

(b) Heart disease

(c) Kidney stone

(d) Tumour

Ans: (a)

2. What does the gas of cigarette smoke contain?

(a) Nitrogen

(b) Oxygen

(c) Carbon-monoxide

(d) All of these

Ans: (d)

3. What does the poisonous gas of a cigarette do to our body?

(a) Act as tumour promoters

(b) Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen

(c) Malignancies of the larynx

(d) None of these 

Ans: (b)

4. What would result in the acute nicotine administration?

(a) Increased dopamine release from the brain

(b) Producing perceptions of pleasures and happiness

(c) Increased energy and motivated

(d) All of these

Ans: (d)

5. What has been used as a pesticide for centuries?

(a) Nicotine

(b) Nitrogen

(c) Acrolein

(d) Formaldehyde

Ans: (a) 0 0 0.

MCQs on Comprehension 2

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