Scientific Laws Principles and Theories


Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Archimedes Principle 

When an object (wholly or partially) is immersed in a liquid, it experiences a buoyant force (upthrust) that is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the object. 

Buoyant force for (upthrust)= Weight of liquid displaced by that object. 

Avograde’s Law: 

Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain an equal number of molecules.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Boyle’s Law: 

At constant temperature, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely to its pressure. 

Charle’s Law: 

At constant pressure,  the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. 

Columb’s law: 

When the distance between the two electric charges gets doubled, the force between them reduces to a quarter of its former value. 

Dalton’s Law: 

When two or more gases that do not react chemically with one another, are enclosed in a vessel, then the total pressure exerted by the mixture of gases will be equal to the sum of partial pressures which each gas would exert, if present alone in that space.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories 

Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis: 

First Law: The mass of the substance liberated at the electrode as a result of electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the electrolyte. 

Second Law: When the same quantity of electricity is passed through different electrolytes connected in series, then the mass of the different substances liberated at the electrodes are proportional to their equivalent masses. 

Uncertainty Principle:

It is impossible to measure simultaneously both the position and velocity (or momentum) of a microscopic particle with absolute accuracy or certainty.  

Inverse Square Law 

The force of attraction between two unlike magnetic poles and the force of repulsion between two like poles are proportional to the square of the distance between them. This law is true for electric charges too. 

Graham’s Law of Diffusion: 

Under the similar condition of temperature and pressure, the mattes of diffusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square root of their densities. 

Law of Conservation of Matter: 

The matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical charges. The sum total of the masses of all the products of a chemical change is exactly equal to the sum total of the substances from which these products have been formed.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories 

Mass Energy Equation: 

E= mc2. which implies that mass and energy are interchangeable, Where, E=quantity of energy.

Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation: 

Every particle of matter in this universe attracts each other with a force that varies directly as the product of masses of two particles and inversely as the square of the distance between them.

Newton’s Laws of Motion

First Law:  It states that a body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless a force is applied on it to change the state of the body. 

Second law: The rate of change of momentum of a moving body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of the force.

Third Law: Whenever one body exerts a force on another body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first body.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories 

Newton’s Law of Cooling

The rate at which a body cools or loses its heat to its surroundings is proportional to the excess of the mean temperature of the body over that of the surrounding, provided this temperature excess is not too large. 

Ohm’s Laws: 

At constant temperature, the current flowing through a conductor of the uniform area of cross-section is proportional to the difference of the potential across its terminals. 

Pascal’s law: 

The pressure applied anywhere in a mass of confined incompressible fluid (or liquid), is transmitted by the fluid in all directions and acts undiminished at every point of the fluid and at right angles to the surface exposed to the fluid.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories 

Laws of Refraction: 

The sine of the angle of incidence bears a constant ratio with the sine of the angle of refraction.

The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal to the interface at the points of incidence all lie in one plane and that plane is perpendicular to the interface separating the two media. 

Laws of Natural Selection: 

Charles Darwin stressed the point that living beings struggle for their existence. The basis of Darwin’s theory are- 

(i) High rate of reproduction 

(ii) Struggle for existence 

(iv) Survival of the fittest 

(iv) Natural selection.

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Laws of Reflection: 

The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence, all lie in one plane and that plane is perpendicular to the reflecting surface. 

Modern Periodic Law:

It states that ‘the physical and chemical properties of the elements vary periodically as their atomic numbers’. 

Laws of Heredity: 

The principles of inheritance are termed ‘Mendel theory’. The laws of heredity are- 

(i) Law of segregation 

(ii) Law of Independence Assortment 

(iii) Law of Paired Factors 

(iv) Law of Dominance

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

Lamarck Theory:

The theory states that the effective and ineffective use of organs brings some changes in the structure of living bodies. 0 0 0

Scientific Laws Principles and Theories

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