MCQs on Comprehension 1


MCQs on Comprehension 1

MCQs on Comprehension 1

MCQs on Comprehension 1

MCQs on Comprehension 1

Q. Read the following passages and basing on your understanding of the passages, answer the questions by choosing the correct option given each passage.

Passage 1

Cardamom, the queen of all spices, has a history as old as mankind. It is the dried fruit of a herbaceous perennial plant. The warm humid climate, loamy soil rich in organic matter, distributed rainfall and specialized cultivation and processing methods all make Indian cardamom unique in aroma, taste, size and parrot green in colour.

Two types of cardamom are produced in India. The first type is large, which is not of much importance as it is not traded in the market. It is cultivated in the north-eastern region of the country. The second type is produced in the southern states and traded in the market. They are mainly cultivated in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. As per the market regulations, earlier only 7mm quality traded on the exchanges. But later, it relaxed its norms and now 6 mm quality is traded in the exchanges.

Cardamom is an expensive spice, second only to saffron. Indian cardamom is known in two main varieties: Malabar cardamom and Mysore cardamom. The Mysore variety has cineole, limonene leaves and hence is more aromatic. India being the world’s largest producer and exporter has emerged as a major producer and exporter of cardamom.

The main crop season for cardamom in India is between August-February. Cardamom reaches the yield stage two years after planting. The primary physical markets for cardamom are Kumily Vandenmodu, Jhekkady, Puliyarmala in Kerala and Bodinikaur and Cumbum in Tamil Nadu.

Kerala is the main producer of cardamom and contributes up to 60% of the total production. Karnataka produces about 25% of the total production of cardamom. Ooty is the main producer of cardamom in Tamil Nadu and contributes about 10-15% of the total production. Apart from India, Guatemala also produces around 1,000-2,000 tones of cardamom per year. Due to the low quality of Guatemalan cardamom, it is available at affordable rates.


1. Mysore variety contains leaves of:

(a) Limonene

(b) Cineol

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

2. Indian Cardamom is:

(a) Poor in quality

(b) Average in quality

(c) Better in quality

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

3. Guatemala produces cardamom :

(a) More but poor in quality

(b) Less but good in quality

(c) More and good in quality

(d) Less and poor in quality

Ans: (a)

4. Main harvest season of cardamom in India is:

(a) August-February

(b) August-March

(c) November

(d) February-April

Ans: (a)

5. Cardamom reaches at its yielding stage in:

(a) Immediately after plantation

(b) Depends upon the plantation

(c) One year after plantation

(d) Two years after plantation

Ans: (d)

6. India produces cardamom of:

(a) One type

(b) Two types

(c) Three types

(d) None of the above

Ans: (b)

7. Which of the following is the variety of Indian cardamom?

(a) Malabar cardamom

(b) Mysore cardamom

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of the above

Ans: (c) 

8. Which of the following production of cardamom produces by Karnataka?

(a) 25%

(b) 10%

(c) 15%

(d) 60%

Ans: (a)

9. Find the synonym of the word ‘distributor’ given in the para 3.

(a) Expensive

(b) Known

(c) Producer

(d) Exporter

Ans: (d)

10. The synonym of the word ‘fragrance’ given in the para 3.

(a) Aroma

(b) Variety

(c) Contain

(d) Hence

Ans: (a)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. Many people believe that science and religion are opposite to each other. But his notation is wrong. Actually, both are related to each other. There is no doubt that the methods of science and religion are different.

2. The method of science is observation, experiment and experience. Science takes this as a progressive march towards perfection. The laws of religion are faith, intuition and the spoken word of the enlightened. In general, while science leans toward logic and rationality, spiritualism is the essence of religion.

3. In earlier times when man appeared on earth, he was stunned by the violent and powerful aspects of nature. In some cases, the usefulness of various natural objects overwhelmed man. Thus began the worship of the forces of nature – fire, sun, rivers, rocks, trees, snakes etc. The sacred texts were written by those who had developed harmony between the outer nature and their inner self. His aim was to enrich, elevate and liberate the human soul and mind. But the priestly class took the monopoly of scriptural knowledge and interpretation for their own benefit.

4. Thus the entire human race was chained. Truth was disregarded and progressive, liberal and truthful ideas or ideas expressing doubt were suppressed and their holders were punished. It was in these difficult circumstances that science emerged as the savior of mankind. But his way was not smooth and safe. Scientists and free thinkers were oppressed. This was the fate of Copernicus, Galileo, Bruno and others. But simultaneously science gained ground.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the correct option given below each question.

1. What is the reasons for man worship the forces of nature?

(a) The holy scriptures advocate the worship of forces of nature.

(b) The worship elevates and liberates the human spirit and mind.

(c) The worship makes man believe in faith and intuition.

(d) Forces of nature teach us spiritualism. 

Ans: (b)

2. According to the passage science and religion both:

(a) Emerged out of the fear of man

(b) Emerged from the desire of man to worship the forces of nature

(c) Employee different methods of enquiry

(d) work at the cross-purpose of each other

Ans: (c)

3. What was the objective of the authors of the holy scriptures?

(a) To teach man the methods of worshipping nature

(b) To educate and raise the human spirit and mind

(c) To develop harmony between external nature and their inner self

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

4. According to the passage, at present juncture there is a need to:

(a) free man from all sorts of bondages

(b) judiciously mix the principles of science and true spirit of religion

(c) teach people to worship the forces of nature

(d) encourage spiritualism as much as possible

Ans: (b)

5. Why it is said in the passage that, “science emerged as a saviour of mankind”?

(a) Science takes recourse to progressive march towards perfection

(b) Science is inclined towards reason and rationality

(c) Man was bound in chains by religious orthodoxy

(d) The free thinkers and enlightened men were tortured

Ans: (c)

6. Truth was:

(a) Flouted

(b) Progressive

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

7. Find the synonym of the word ‘belief’ used in paragraph 2.

(a) Observation

(b) Experience

(c) Faith

(d) Enlightened

Ans: (c)

8. Find the synonym of the word ‘show up’ used in paragraph 3.

(a) Appear

(b) Scripture

(c) Developed

(d) Usefulness

Ans: (a)

9. Find the antonym of the word ‘non contradictory’ used in paragraph 1.

(a) Believe

(b) Each

(c) Method

(d) Contrary

Ans: (d)

10. Find the antonym of the word ‘retrogression’ used in paragraph 4.

(a) Flout

(b) Progress

(c) Truth

(d) Liberal

Ans: (b)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. It took nearly 3,000 years of food evolution for the pizza pie to reach its current delicious state today. Although flatbreads have been around for 6,000 years, the word, “pizziare” began to appear in Italian writing by 1000 BC. The word ‘pizza’ is believed to have originated from an Old Italian word meaning ‘a point’, which in turn became the Italian word “pizziare”, meaning to pinch or break.

2. Tomato was first brought to Italy from South America in 1522. At first, tomatoes were considered poisonous. Fortunately, the region’s poor farmers eventually overcame their doubts about the tomato in the 17th century and began adding it to bread dough, and the first pizzas were created.

3. Before the arrival of tomatoes in the 1500s, the first pizzas in Naples were white, made with garlic, olive oil, salt, anchovies, and perhaps lard. Neapolitans were the first to embrace the tomato because it was considered poisonous in Europe as a member of the nightshade family. As the popularity of tomato increased, people started using it more and more. Mozzarella cheese was also slowly tightening its grip. Mozzarella became available in Italy only when buffalo was imported from India in the 7th century (mozzarella was first made from buffalo milk). Its popularity grew very slowly until the end of the 18th century. In fact, cheese and tomatoes were not found on pizza until 1889.

4. The most widely regarded pizza (tomato, mozzarella, basil) was created on June 11, 1889, by a pizza-maker named Raffaele Esposito. This pizzaolo (pizza-maker in Italian and pizzaiolo in Neapolitan) made a special pizza for the visit of Queen Margherita of Savoia. They made three different pizzas, but the Queen fell in love with one in particular, with the three ingredients representing the three colors of the Italian flag. The Italian flag was represented by tomato (red), mozzarella (white), and basil (green). Esposito named this pizza “Pizza Alia Margherita” in honor of the queen. Whether Esposito was the first to use those ingredients, it is known as the classic Neapolitan pizza or the modern tomato and cheese pizza.

5. In the late 19th century, pizza moved to America with the Italians. By the turn of the century, Italian immigrants had begun opening their own bakeries and selling groceries as well as pizza. Gennaro Lombardi opened the first true US pizzeria in New York City in 1905 at 531/3, Spring Street, a part of the city known as “Little Italy”.

6. In India, recently, pizza has become a popular food. It has become a fashion and also a way to show that someone famous is a part of western culture. In fact, it is more than a fashion statement. The popularity of food is increasing. This is evident from a report in Fortune magazine. Pizza Hut and Domino’s, the two giants of the pizza industry, are in heated competition with each other in India. There are 134 Pizza Hut and 149 Domino’s locations in India, with each chain opening 50 stores a year.

7. The popularity of pizza in India, Fortune claims, is due to its similarity to the indigenous cuisines of India. Unlike the Chinese and Japanese, Indians eat sourdough bread (roti/naan), and a popular traditional version mixes it in butter and garlic—not unlike garlic bread, most frequently ordered at both Domino’s and Pizza Hut franchises in India. A side dish to be done. Paneer (Cheese) is ubiquitous in the northern cuisine of India. Tomatoes and all kinds of chutneys are prevalent everywhere. Combine these ingredients into a pulpy, oily, savory dish that you can eat with your hands—as Indians traditionally do—and you’ve got a hit. Compare it to other popular food or noodles. Sometimes, it falls off our forks and down the plate, and here we go, a complete mess. Also, the embarrassment would have been that the place would have been a famous restaurant or a boss party. One thing that sparks love for pizza among all is that we can all eat it with our hands.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. What does the word ‘pizza’ mean?

(a) To pinch

(b) To cut

(c) To slice

(d) To encircle

Ans: (a)

2.  From where were tomatoes first introduced to Italy?

(a) North America

(b) Europe

(c) South America

(d) China

Ans: (c)

3. Which pizza represented the Italian flag?

(a) Tomato and mozzarella

(b) Mozzarella and basil

(c) Mozzarella, tomato and basil

(d) Mozzarella, tomato and spinach

Ans: (c)

4. Who opened the first true US pizzeria in 1905?

(a) Raffaele Esposito

(b) Gennaro Lombardi

(c) Neapolitans

(d) None of these

Ans: (b)

5. Why is pizza popular in India?

(a) Because it has become a fashion

(b) Because it is a part of the famous western culture

(c) Because of its similarity to India’s native cuisine

(d) All of these

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. Early automobiles were sometimes simply ‘horseless carriages’ powered by gasoline or steam engines. Some of them were so noisy that cities often legislated forbidding their use because they would frighten horses.

2. Many countries helped develop the automobile. The internal combustion engine, invented in Austria and France, was an early leader in automobile manufacturing. But after 1900 it was in the United States that the most rapid improvement in automobiles occurred. As a large and growing country, the United States needed cars and trucks to provide transportation to places not served by trains.

3. Two brilliant ideas made the mass production of the automobile possible. An American inventor named Eli Whitney thought of one of them, known as ‘Parts Standardization’. In an effort to speed up production at his gun factory, Whitney decided that each part of the gun could be machined, so that it would be exactly like all other parts of its kind.

4. Another American, Henry Ford, developed the idea of the assembly line. Before Ford introduced the assembly line, each car was built by hand. Of course, such a process was very slow. As a result, automobiles were so expensive that only the wealthy people could afford them. Ford proposed a system in which each worker would have only part of the wheels. The other will keep the wheels on the car. And yet, another would insert the bolts that were holding the car’s wheels in place. Each worker only needs to learn one or two routine tasks.

5. But the really important part of Ford’s idea was getting to the worker. An automobile frame resembling a steel skeleton was mounted on a moving platform. As the frame moved behind the workers, each worker could attach a part. When the car reached the end of the line, it was completely assembled. Oil, gasoline and water were mixed and the car was ready to drive away. With the increase in production made possible by the assembly line, automobiles became very economical and more and more people were able to afford them.

6. Today it can be said that the wheels drive America. The automobile’s four rubber tires move America through work and play.

7. Even though it would be difficult for most Americans to imagine what life might be like without a car, some have begun to realize that the automobile is a mixed blessing. Traffic accidents are increasing continuously and big cities are plagued by traffic congestion. The worst, perhaps, is the air pollution caused by internal combustion engines. Each car engine burns hundreds of gallons of fuel each year and pumps hundreds of pounds of carbon monoxide and other gases into the air. These gases are a source of smog spread over large cities. Some of these gases are toxic and dangerous to health, especially for people with a weak heart or respiratory disease.

8. One answer to the problem of air pollution is to build a car that does not pollute. That’s what many big automakers are trying to do. But building a clean car is easier to be said than to be done. So far, progress has been slow. Another solution is to eliminate car smoke altogether by getting rid of the internal combustion engine. Inventors are now working on turbine-powered cars as well as steam and electric cars. But most of us won’t be driving a car powered by batteries or boiling water for some time now. Many automakers believe it will take years to develop a practical model powered by electricity or steam.

9. In order to make the world free of pollution—pollution is caused not just by cars, but by modern industrial life—many believe that many of us need to make some fundamental changes to the way we live. For example, Americans may have to cut back on the number of privately owned cars and rely more on public mass transit systems. Certainly, the widespread use of new transit systems could reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. But these changes sometimes come face to face with other urgent problems. For example, if a factory shuts down due to non-compliance with government pollution standards, a large number of workers suddenly find themselves without jobs. Questioning the quality of the air they breathe becomes less important than worrying about the next paycheck. If we have to reduce traffic accidents, traffic congestion and air pollution then drastic action should be taken. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation, they have also brought new and unexpected problems. Progress, it turns out, has more than one face.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. What did the United States need for transportation in places that were not served by trains?

(a) They needed trains

(b) They needed fuel

(c) They needed cars and trucks

(d) All of the above

Ans: (c)

2. What did Henry Ford develop?

(a) The idea of the assembly line

(b) Horseless carriages

(c) Automobile frame

(d) Wheels for the car

Ans: (a)

3. What was the impact of the increased production made by the assembly line?

(a) Automobiles became much economical

(b) More people were able to afford them

(c) Traffic accidents increased

(d) Both (a) and (c)

Ans: (d)

5. What is the one solution to the problem of air pollution?

(a) To burn hundreds of gallons of fuel each year

(b) To build a car that does not pollute

(c) To increase the production of cars

(d) To provide transportation in all the places

Ans: (b)

6. What has brought better and more convenient transportation?

(a) Engines

(b) Public mass transport systems

(c) Wheels

(d) None of these

Ans: (a)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. The Ig Nobel Prizes are a parody of the Nobel Prizes. They are awarded every year in early October for ten unusual or insignificant achievements in scientific research. The stated purpose of the awards is “to honor achievements that first make people laugh, and then make them think.” The rewards are sometimes outright criticism (or gentle satire), but are also used to indicate that even the most absurd-sounding avenues of research can yield useful knowledge. Organized by the scientific humor journal Annals of Improbable Research (AIR), they are presented by a group that includes Nobel laureates at a ceremony at Harvard University’s Sanders Theater. This is followed by a set of public lectures by the winners at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2. The first Ig Nobel was created in 1991 by Mark Abraham, editor and co-founder of the Annals of Improbable Research. He is the master of ceremonies at all subsequent award ceremonies. Prizes were awarded for discoveries of the time “that cannot, or should not be, reproduced”. Ten prizes are awarded each year in several categories, including the Nobel Prize categories for physics, chemistry, physiology/medicine, literature and peace, but also other categories such as public health, engineering, biology and interdisciplinary research. The Ig Nobel Prizes recognize real achievements, with the exception of three awards given in the first year to fictional scientists Josiah Carberry, Paul Defanti and Thomas Kyle.

3. The awards are sometimes outright criticism (or gentle satire), as in the two awards given to homeopathy research, the Kansas and Colorado State Boards of Education in “science education” for their stance on the teaching of development. Awards, and Social Affair was followed by the award to Social Lessons. However, often, they draw attention to scientific articles that have some humorous or unexpected aspects. Examples range from the statement that black holes meet all the technical requirements to be the place of hell, to research on the “five-second rule”, a tongue-in-cheek belief that food spilled on the floor is contaminated. Won’t happen if it is picked up within five seconds. In 2010, Sir Andre Geim became the first person to receive both a Nobel Prize and an individual Ig Nobel Prize.

4. The prizes are presented by actual Nobel laureates, originally in a ceremony at MIT (a lecture hall), but now at the Sanders Theater at Harvard University. It contains several jokes, including Miss Sweety Poo, a little girl who repeatedly cries, “Please stop, I’m bored,” in a loud voice if the speaker goes on for too long. The awards ceremony traditionally closes with the words: “If you haven’t won the award and especially if you’ve had better luck the following year!” The event is co-sponsored by the Harvard Computer Society, the Harvard-Radcliffe Science Fiction Association and the Harvard-Radcliffe Society of Physics Students.

5. Throwing paper airplanes on stage at the Ig Nobel is a long-standing tradition. In previous years, Roy Glauber, a physics professor, cleared the airplane platform as the official “broom keeper” for years. Glauber could not attend the 2005 awards as he was traveling to Stockholm to claim the actual Nobel Prize in Physics. Representatives from the Museum of Bad Art are also often present to display some pieces from their collection.

6. The ceremony is recorded and broadcast on National Public Radio and is shown live over the Internet. The recording is broadcast every year on the public radio program Science Friday on the Friday after US Thanksgiving. In recognition of this, viewers chant the maiden name of the radio show’s host, Ira Flatow.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option.

1. How many Ig Nobel Prizes are given each year?

(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 7

(d) 10

Ans: (d)

2. Who created the first Ig Nobel Prize?

(a) Thomas Kyle

(b) Marc Abrahams

(c) Josiah Carberry

(d) Paul DeFanti

Ans: (b)

3. In which year were fictitious scientists awarded Ig Nobel Prize?

(a) 1990

(b) 1991

(c) 1992

(d) 1995

Ans: (b)

4. What is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels?

(a) Throwing paper airplanes onto the stage

(b) Throwing tomatoes onto the stage

(c) Leaving the winners’ handprints on the stage

(d) Winners sweeping the stage

Ans: (a)

5. Where is the ceremony recorded and broadcasted?

(a) Harvard Computer Society

(b) Kansas

(c) National Public Radio

(d) Colorado

Ans: (c)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. Jane Goodall was born on April 3, 1934 in London, England. On his second birthday, his father gave him a toy chimpanzee named Jubilee. The Jubilee was named after a chimpanzee at the London Zoo and looked like what would change Jane’s life. To this day, Jubilee sits on a chair in Jane’s London home. Jane was fascinated by animals and animal stories from an early age. By the age of 10, she was talking about going to Africa and living among the animals there. At the time, in the early 1940s, it was a revolutionary idea because women did not travel to Africa alone.

2. As a young woman, Jane finished school in London, attended a secretarial school, and then briefly worked as a documentary filmmaker. When a schoolmate invited her to visit Kenya, she worked as a waitress until she could get rent to get there by boat. Then she was 23 years old.

3. Once in Kenya, she met the famous paleontologist and anthropologist Dr. Louis Leakey. He was impressed by her deep knowledge of Africa and its wildlife and hired him and his wife to assist him on a fossil-hunting expedition to the Olduvai Gorge. Dr. Leakey soon realized that Jane was the perfect person to complete the study he had been planning for some time. He expressed his interest in the idea of studying animals living in the wild with them, rather than studying dead animals through paleontology.

4. Dr. Leakey and Jane began planning a study of a group of chimpanzees living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in Kenya. At first the British officials did not approve of his plan. At that time, they thought it was too dangerous for a woman to live alone in the jungles of Africa. But Jane’s mother, Vanne, agreed to join her so that she would not be left alone. In the end, the authorities gave Jane the necessary clearance to go to Africa and begin her studies.

5. In July 1960, Jane and her mother reached Gombe National Park, which was then called Tanganyika and is now called Tanzania. Jane faced many challenges while starting her job. The chimpanzees did not accept him immediately, and it took them months to get used to his presence in their territory. But she was very patient and focused on her goal. Gradually, she was able to enter their world.

6. At first she could see the chimpanzee with binoculars from a long distance. As time went on, she was able to move her observation point closer to them using camouflage. Eventually, she was able to sit among them, touch, pat and even feed them. This was a wonderful achievement for Jane and a breakthrough in the study of wild animals. Jane named all the chimpanzees she studied, saying in her journals that she thought each had a unique personality.

7. One of the first important observations Jane made during the study was that chimpanzees build and use tools, like humans, to help them obtain food. Earlier it was believed that man used tools alone. Thanks to Jane’s research as well, we now know that chimps eat meat as well as plants and fruits. In many ways, it has helped us see how chimpanzees and humans are alike. In doing so, it has made us more empathetic towards these creatures, while helping us understand ourselves better.

8. The study started in 1960 by Jane Goodall is now the longest field study of any animal species in their natural habitat. Research continues today in Gombe and is conducted by a team of trained Tanzanians.

9. Jane’s life includes much more than her studies of chimpanzees in Tanzania. She earned her bachelor’s degree while pursuing her studies, Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1965. In 1984, he was awarded J Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Award for helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation to life on this planet. She has been married twice: first to a photographer and then to the director of a national park. 

10. Dr. Jane Goodall is now the world’s best-known authority on chimpanzees, having studied their behavior for nearly 40 years. He has published many scientific articles. She has written two books and won several awards for her groundbreaking work. The Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation was founded in 1977 in California, but moved to the Washington, DC, area in 1998. Its goal is to take necessary action to improve the environment for all living things. 

11. Dr. Goodall now travels extensively, giving lectures, visiting zoos and chimpanzee sanctuaries, and speaking to young people involved in environmental education. He is indeed a great conservationist and a wonderful human being.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. What do chimpanzees eat?

(a) Only meat

(b) Only plants

(c) Only fruits

(d) All of these

Ans: (d)

2. Where did Jane and her mother arrive in the July month of 1960?

(a) Africa

(b) Lake Tanganyika

(c) London

(d) Gombe National Park

Ans: (d)

3. What was a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild?

(a) To watch chimpanzees from a distance

(b) To move the observation point closer

(c) To be able to sit among chimpanzees

(d) None of these

Ans: (c)

4. Why did Jane receive the J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize?

(a) For pursuing a graduate degree while still conducting her study

(b) Helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation

(c) For founding the Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation

(d) For travelling extensively, giving lectures, and visiting zoos

Ans: (b)

5. Which of the following is not true about chimpanzees?

(a) Chimpanzees are often comfortable with strangers.

(b) Chimpanzees eat meat as well as plants and fruits.

(c) Chimpanzees use tools to help them get food.

(d) Different chimpanzees have different personalities.

Ans: (a)

MCQs on Comprehension 1


1. Swachh Bharat Mission is a huge mass movement which wants to build a clean India by 2019. Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, always emphasizes on cleanliness because cleanliness leads to a healthy and prosperous life. Keeping this in mind, the Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2 October 2014. This mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The urban component of the mission was implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development and the rural component by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

2. The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provide 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets and a solid waste management facility in each city. Under the program community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to build individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated places like tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations etc. The program will be implemented over a period of five years in 4,401 cities. Out of Rs 62,009 crore to be spent on the programme, the Center will spend Rs 14,623 crore. From the center part 14,623 cr, 7,366 cr will be spent on solid waste management, 4,165 cr will be spent on individual household toilets? 1,828 crore on public awareness and Rs 655 crore on community toilets.

3. The program includes eradication of open defecation, conversion of insanitary latrines to flush latrines, elimination of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and behavioral change in people with respect to healthy sanitation practices.

4. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been reorganized into Swachh Bharat Mission. The mission aims to make India an open defecation free country in five years. Under the mission, a huge amount will be spent on the construction of about 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country. The technology will be used extensively to convert waste into wealth in rural India in the form of bio-fertilizers and various forms of energy. The mission is to be implemented on a war footing with the participation of every Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zilla Parishad in the country, apart from involving large sections of the rural population and school teachers and students in this effort.

5. As a part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for one unit cost of individual household toilets has been increased from 10,000 to 12,000 to provide water availability including storage, hand washing and cleaning of toilets. The central share for such toilets will be 9,000, while the state share will be 3,000. For north-eastern states, Jammu and Kashmir and special category states, the central share will be 10,800 and the state share will be 1,200. Additional contribution from other sources will be allowed.

6. A ‘Clean India Run’ was organized on 2 October 2014 at Rashtrapati Bhavan. According to a Rashtrapati Bhavan statement, around 1,500 people participated and the event was flagged off by President Pranab Mukherjee. Participants in the race included officers and employees of the Secretariat, the President’s bodyguards, army guards and Delhi Police as well as their families. PhD students of NIT Rourkela have made a short film on Swachh Bharat, giving the message that Swachh Bharat is not a one day event. It should be part of our life, only then we can achieve our goal of Swachh Bharat (Clean India).

7. Swachh Bharat Kosh (SBK) has been set up to facilitate and channelize individual philanthropic contributions and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds to achieve the objective of Swachh Bharat (Clean India) by the year 2019. funds will be used. To achieve the objective of improving the level of cleanliness in rural and urban areas including schools. The allocation from the fund will be used to supplement the departmental resources for such activities. To encourage contributions from individuals and corporates, modalities for providing tax exemption wherever possible are being considered.

On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. 

1. When was the Swachh Bharat Mission implemented?

(a) October 2

(b) October 30

(c) November 14

(d) December 2

Ans: (a)

2.  By which year does the mission seek to create Clean India?

(a) 2015

(b) 2017

(c) 2019

(d) 2016

Ans: (c)

3.  By whom was the rural component of the mission implemented?

(a) Ministry of Urban Development

(b) Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

(c) Ministry of Rural Development

(d) Ministry of Cleanliness and Sanitation

Ans: (b)

4.  Where was the ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ organised?

(a) Rashtrapati Bhavan

(b) India Gate

(c) Jammu and Kashmir

(d) Rural India

Ans: (a)

5. What has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission?

(a) Nirmal Abhiyan

(b) Nirmal Mission

(c) Nirmal Bharat Mission

(d) Bharat Bachao Mission

Ans: (a) 0 0 0.

MCQs on Comprehension 1

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